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CASE STUDIES IN INDUSTRIAL NOISE CONTROL

A.R. Mohanty
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Dr. A. R. Mohanty is a professor of Mechanical Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India where he also holds the Shyamal Ghosh and Sunanda Ghosh Chair Professor position. Professor Mohanty obtained his PhD in the areas of Noise Control from the University of Kentucky, USA. He was also a post doctoral fellow at the Ray W. Herrick Labs of Purdue University, USA working in the areas of active control of tire noise. Professor Mohanty has worked in NVH areas at Ford Motor Company in Dearborn and Larsen & Toubro Limited, Mumbai. He has been a consultant to more than a 100 companies in the areas of noise control and machinery condition monitoring. His research interests are in the areas of machinery condition monitoring, industrial noise control and acoustical materials. Dr. Mohanty has more than 200 refereed journal and conference publications; he has one book, five book chapters and one patent to his credit. He has held visiting faculty positions at universities in the USA, France and Singapore. Professor Mohanty is a fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering, Acoustical Society of India, Condition Monitoring Society of India, Institution of Engineers India and the International Society of Engineering Asset Management. He has received several national and international awards and scholarships for recognition of his research and teaching.

Mechanical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
India

The speaker would present several case studies in industrial noise control from over three decades of research, teaching and consulting experience both in India and abroad. The case studies would be from the sectors of transportation, machineries and environment. In particular, the successful noise reduction in the driver's cabin of a diesel locomotive for the Indian railways would be presented. From the automobile and mining sector, case studies of application of basic vibration reduction techniques to improve the noise vibration and harshness performance of power trains and cabin noise in automobiles and earth moving machinery operator's cabin will be presented. Results from a research study on the active noise control of tire noise in an automobile would be presented too. Some innovative use of engineered natural materials, on-site novel measurement techniques, state-of-the art analysis technique and instrumentation currently used for noise source identification and its control will be discussed. The application of natural materials for noise reduction in refrigerators, vacuum cleaners and clothes dryer would be presented. The significance of few sound quality metrics in designing quieter machinery components, in particular automobile silencers would be demonstrated from results of a jury evaluation. Some case studies on environment noise control for mining and steel plants would also be presented. An example from underwater noise monitoring during piling operations for establishing safe levels for protection of marine animals during expansion of a shipping jetty would be discussed. Recent developments in the areas of sonic crystal and micro-perforates for application in noise control would be presented.



CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES ON DYNAMICS PROBLEMS IN CHINESE HIGH-SPEED RAILWAYS

Wanming Zhai
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Professor Wanming Zhai is an Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). He graduated from Southwest Jiaotong University (SWJTU) with BS degree in 1985 and received his PhD degree in Railway Vehicle Engineering in 1992. He became a full professor in 1994. In 1999, he was appointed Chang Jiang Chair Professor by the Chinese Ministry of Education. Currently, he is a chair Professor of Railway Engineering at SWJTU, the Chairman of Academic Committee of Southwest Jiaotong University, and the Director of Train and Track Research Institute. Professor Zhai is one of the leading scientists in railway engineering in the world. His research activities are mainly in the field of railway system dynamics, focusing on train-track-bridge interactions. He established a new theoretical framework of vehicle-track coupled dynamics so as to be able to investigate the dynamical problems of overall vehicle and track system. He developed a dynamic model and computational software TTBSIM for solving the large-scale train-track-bridge interaction problems and proposed a method to assess the running safety and ride comfort of high-speed trains passing through different types of bridges at the design stage. His models and methods, well-known as Zhai model and Zhai method, have been successfully applied to more than 20 large-scale field engineering projects for the railway network in China, mostly for high-speed railways. Professor Zhai is the Editor-in-Chief of International Journal of Rail Transportation published by Taylor & Francis Group. He also serves as a trustee of International Association for Vehicle System Dynamics, the President of Chengdu Association for Science and Technology, the vice President of the Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and the vice President of the Chinese Society for Vibration Engineering.

Southwest Jiaotong University, China

High-speed railway has achieved rapid development in China during very short period, along with many scientific and technological challenges. In this presentation, an overview is given on the development of high-speed railways in China, including the history of raising train speed and current status of high-speed railways. Key challenges focusing on dynamics problems are discussed at design stage and at operation stage of Chinese high-speed railways, respectively. For example, how to employ the vehicle–track coupled dynamics theory to determine the design parameters of plane curves and vertical profiles for different high speed lines without any design standard at the beginning of development of high-speed railways in China? How to use the train–track–bridge dynamic interaction simulation to evaluate and assess the running safety and ride comfort of high-speed trains passing through various types of bridges at the design stage? How to maintain the high ride comfort of high-speed trains running on various infrastructures at operation stage? Some strategies for coping with the challenges are introduced on the basis of speaker's research work on railway system dynamics, and some application examples are provided to demonstrate their effectiveness in practical high-speed railway engineering.



PREMISES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING: STATE OF THE ART, NEW OUTCOMES AND PERSPECTIVES OF CLASSROOM ACOUSTICS

Arianna Astolfi
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Arianna Astolfi, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Building Physics at the Department of Energy of the Politecnico di Torino, Italy, where she is responsible for the Applied Acoustics Group and Laboratory. She is co-chair of the Technical Committee on "Room and Building Acoustics" of the European Acoustical Association, a member of the National Council of the Italian Acoustic Association, and a member of the UK Institute of Acoustics and of the Acoustical Society of America.

Professor Astolfi regularly organizes Structured Sessions on Room Acoustics for EAA Conferences and she is frequently appointed as Chair-person of "Classroom Acoustics" sessions. She serves the UNI committee, which is developing technical standards on acoustic requirements for such indoor environments as schools, offices and hospitals. She is a member of the editorial board of the "Acoustics" and "Building Acoustics" journals, guest editor of a number of special issues in international journals and author of more than 50 peer-reviewed articles on such topics as classroom acoustics, voice monitoring, concert-hall acoustics, soundscape and sound insulation.

She has registered two patents and has created two start-ups, that worked in the I3P incubator of the Politecnico di Torino. She has participated in the scientific committees of several conferences in the field of acoustics and building physics and has been invited, as an expert speaker, to conferences in the fields of Audiology, Phoniatrics, and Speech Therapy.

Politecnico di Torino, TEBE Group, Department of Energy, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Turin, Italy

Many booklets and standards have already been published on classroom acoustics in several Countries, based on studies that were carried out up to ten years ago and which were mainly focused on the speech intelligibility of pupils under noisy conditions. In the last decade several studies have started to consider the complex speech communication scenario in classrooms, where acoustic requirements are needed for both teachers and pupils. The voice monitoring of teachers has revealed challenging conditions for speaking as a result of bad acoustics, with consequences on vocal health. Research has underlined the importance of voice support from the room, which has led us to reconsider the optimal reverberation time in classrooms, whose tendency is towards higher values than those for listening. On the other hand, it has been proved that a high reverberation increases the listening effort and decreases reading abilities. Thus, the question of the optimal reverberation time for speaking and listening arises, as well as the need to optimize the design of classrooms to support voice and control the sound tail. The perceived reverberation is closely related to the perceived acoustic quality, which is recognized as the most important environmental aspect in classrooms. Reverberation also amplifies the noise produced by pupils themselves and affects their well-being. To cope with this, a new device has been introduced to inform pupils on the need to lower their voices and respect others.
A summary of the state of the art of classroom acoustics is given in this lecture, together with the new findings on the effects of bad acoustics on pupils' learning and well-being and on teachers' vocal behavior. A new paradigm on speech communication is needed in classrooms that should involve both teaching and learning. Further work is required to investigate the factors that underpin this complex communication scenario.


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